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During the past decade there has been a considerable increase in literature documenting the growth of Indian Ocean port cities. Famously described as the Brides of the Sea, port cities such as Cape Town, Karachi, Bombay (Mumbai), Madras (Chennai), Calcutta, Rangoon, Singapore, and Jakarta were the bridgeheads for the establishment of European dominance. They fostered greater connectivity and intercultural exchanges, and they produced distinctive urban settlement patterns, environments, and social relationships.
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